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The Role of Mustard Oil in Assamese Cuisine

Assamese cuisine, with its distinctive flavours and robust character, is deeply intertwined with the local culture and geography of Assam. One of the key ingredients that is indispensable in Assamese cuisine is mustard oil. Known for its pungent aroma and sharp taste, mustard oil is not just a cooking medium but a symbol of tradition and health. In this blog, we will explore the historical significance, popular dishes, and cultural importance of mustard oil in Assamese cuisine, offering a comprehensive look at why this oil is indispensable to the culinary identity of Assam.

Historical Significance of Mustard Oil


The use of mustard oil in Assamese cuisine can be traced back to ancient times. Mustard plants have been cultivated in the region for centuries, providing a readily available source of oil. Historical records and local folklore suggest that mustard oil was valued not only for its culinary uses but also for its medicinal properties. The ancient Assamese texts often mention mustard oil as a crucial element in both cooking and traditional medicine.

Evolution Through the Centuries

Over the centuries, the role of mustard oil in Assamese cuisine has evolved but its importance has remained steadfast. In the past, mustard oil was extracted using traditional wooden mills, a method still followed in some rural areas to maintain authenticity. Despite modern advancements in oil extraction and cooking techniques, mustard oil continues to be a preferred choice in Assamese households. Its ability to enhance the flavour of dishes and its perceived health benefits have ensured its persistent popularity.

Popular Assamese Dishes Using Mustard Oil

The Role of Mustard Oil in Assamese Cuisine
The Role of Mustard Oil in Assamese Cuisine

Masor Tenga (Fish Curry)

Masor Tenga, a tangy fish curry, is one of the most iconic dishes in Assamese cuisine. The sharpness of mustard oil perfectly complements the sourness of the curry, which is typically made with ingredients like tomatoes, lemon, or raw mango. The fish is first fried in mustard oil, which not only adds depth to the flavour but also helps in retaining the fish's texture. This dish is a staple in Assamese households and is particularly enjoyed during the summer months for its refreshing taste.

Aloo Pitika (Mashed Potatoes)

Aloo Pitika is a simple yet flavorful dish made by mashing boiled potatoes with mustard oil, green chillies, onions, and sometimes roasted black sesame seeds. The pungency of mustard oil is crucial in this dish, as it brings out the earthiness of the potatoes and adds a spicy kick. Aloo Pitika is often served as a side dish with rice and dal, embodying the essence of Assamese comfort food.

Khar (Alkaline Dish)

Khar is a unique alkaline dish that holds a special place in Assamese cuisine. Made with raw papaya, pulses, and the key ingredient 'Khar,' derived from the sun-dried banana peel, this dish is tempered with mustard oil. The oil's pungency balances the mild bitterness of Khar, creating a complex flavour profile. Traditionally served at the beginning of a meal, khar is believed to aid digestion and cleanse the palate.

Various Pickles

Assamese cuisine boasts a variety of pickles, and mustard oil is integral to their preparation. From mango and lime pickles to garlic and bamboo shoot pickles, the process involves marinating the ingredients in a mixture of spices and mustard oil. The oil acts as a preservative, enhancing the flavour and ensuring the longevity of the pickles. These pickles are a common accompaniment to meals, adding a burst of flavour to the simplest of dishes.

Cultural Importance of Mustard Oil in Assam

Rituals and Traditions

Mustard oil is deeply embedded in the cultural fabric of Assam. It is used in various rituals and ceremonies, symbolizing purity and prosperity. During religious festivals and traditional ceremonies, mustard oil lamps, known as "diyas," are lit to invoke divine blessings. The oil is also used in traditional massages and skincare routines, believed to impart strength and vitality. For instance, during the Bihu festival, a major Assamese celebration, mustard oil is used in rituals like "Goru Bihu," where cattle are cleaned and smeared with mustard oil.

Symbolic Meaning

In Assamese culture, mustard oil symbolizes warmth and protection. It is often applied to the body, especially of newborns, to protect against infections and colds. This practice, known locally as "tel maalish," is believed to strengthen the bones and muscles of infants. The oil's strong aroma is thought to ward off negative energies, making it a staple in many household rituals. This symbolic use underscores the oil's multifaceted role beyond the kitchen.

Health and Medicinal Uses

Mustard oil is not only valued for its culinary properties but also for its health benefits. Rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins, and antioxidants, mustard oil improves heart health, boost immunity, and enhances skin quality. Traditional Assamese medicine often incorporates mustard oil in remedies for ailments such as colds, joint pains, and digestive issues. The oil's antimicrobial properties make it effective in treating minor cuts and wounds as well.


Mustard oil is more than just an ingredient in Assamese cuisine; it is a cornerstone of the region's culinary and cultural identity. From enhancing the flavours of beloved dishes like Masor Tenga and Aloo Pitika to playing a crucial role in traditional rituals and health practices, mustard oil's significance is profound and enduring. As Assamese cuisine continues to evolve and gain global recognition, the integral role of mustard oil remains unchanged, a testament to its timeless appeal and versatility. Embracing mustard oil in cooking not only connects one to the rich heritage of Assam but also offers a unique culinary experience that is both flavorful and nourishing.

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